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This track is considered as a large-scale matching task because the input ontologies are of a large size and very rich semantically castiva arthritis pain relief lotion purchase celebrex 200mg on line. Two evaluation tasks are defined: task 1 consists in matching two different ontologies given in different languages arthritis x ray shoulder purchase 200mg celebrex with visa, while task 2 aims to degenerative arthritis in your neck 200 mg celebrex overnight delivery align different language versions of one single ontology dog arthritis medication jack hanna celebrex 100mg low price. What we see is the average F-measure value for all language-pairs without any threshold on the confidence measure. The value in the parenthesis corresponds to the average F-measure value for the generated alignments only (the pairs of languages that the system handles). In this year, our goal was to participate on monolingual ontology matching scenarios. Todorov, "Opening the black box of ontology matching, " in the Semantic Web: Semantics and Big Data, pp. Mungall, "Unification of multi-species vertebrate anatomy ontologies for comparative biology in uberon, " J. Ponzetto, "Babelnet: the automatic construction, evaluation and application of a wide-coverage multilingual semantic network, " Artif. We demonstrate that we can identify a large number of mappings, some of which require automated reasoning and cannot easily be identified through lexical approaches alone. The Entity will usually be a class taken either from an anatomy ontology or a physiology ontology. The aim of rewriting the axioms is to base the classification of phenotype classes primarily on anatomical or physiological entities instead of the quality, and to utilize the axioms involving parthood in anatomy and physiology ontologies. Initially, we developed our matching system to take into account not only the direct sub- and super-classes, but also all inferred classes. We modified our system to output only the most specific mappings instead for the evaluation; Table 2 shows both the number of direct and inferred mappings. Source code for the matching system, including parameter files, and the generated alignments, are available at github. Table 3 summarizes our results with respect to the reference mappings provided in the challenge. The system carried out the evaluation according to following criteria: ­ Precision and Recall with respect to a voted reference alignment automatically generated by merging/voting the outputs of the participating systems. Different mappings were used to evaluate the participating systems: i) Silver standard with vote 2, ii) Silver standard with vote 3, iii) manually dataset and manual assessment. We generated three different version of the PhenomeNet ontology, each with different information and ontologies included. Our results demonstrate that a combination of lexical and semantic approaches may improve upon mappings between ontologies generated using only one of these methods. It is inevitable that the knowledge about the same real-world entity may be stored in different knowledge bases. Therefore, data integration process requires the detection of such heterogeneous instances to ensure the integrity and consistency. Most recently, it should be noticed that there are many knowledge bases described in different languages. For example, Wikipedia, a well-known public encyclopedia, contains 281 language versions. It is going to be norm that the same real-world entities are described by different language. Thus, there is a growing need to align instances in a cross-lingual environment so that we can share knowledge from all over the world. There are three major techniques in our system, blocking, multi-strategy, machine learning: 1. Blocking: We index the instances based on their objects in two knowledge bases respectively, and then select the instances which contain the same keys as candidate instance pairs. We limit the number of pairs to be compared by this step, which significantly improve the efficiency of the system. Multi-strategy: We implement several matchers in our instance matching system, we can execute these matchers in parallel and then aggregate the result according to the characteristics of the source ontologies. For exmaple, there are a number of cross-lingual links between two different language versions 210 of Wikipedia. To make full use of these data, we formalize the instance matching as a binary classification problem, and use the reference mappings to train a classifier, which will determine whether an instance pair is equivalent or not. It presents a novel multi-strategy method to be fit for different kinds of ontology and employs a learning-based approach to get instance alignments in multilingual environments.

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The pterygopalatine portion of the maxillary artery enters the pterygopalatine fossa and terminates in several branches that supply the maxillary molar and premolar teeth rheumatoid arthritis definition medical buy 200mg celebrex amex, supporting tissues rheumatoid arthritis chemo buy 200 mg celebrex amex, and the maxillary sinus arthritis in cats back discount 100 mg celebrex visa. This portion of the maxillary artery enters the pterygopalatine fossa via the pterygomaxillary fissure zen arthritis spray generic celebrex 200 mg visa. As the vessel enters the fossa to terminate into several arteries, the posterior superior alveolar artery arises from it and descends over the maxillary tuberosity to enter the posterior superior alveolar foramen with the like-named nerve. This artery vascularizes the molar and premolar teeth, adjacent supporting tissues, and the maxillary sinus. The pterygoid plexus of veins is a massive network of venous channels lying on and about the surfaces of the lateral and medial pterygoid muscles and extending into the spaces of the deep face within the infratemporal fossa. The plexus receives venous tributaries from vessels corresponding to the named arteries branching from the maxillary artery. This plexus is in direct or indirect communication with a vast area, including the cranial cavity and cavernous sinus, the nasal cavity, orbit, paranasal sinuses, facial vein, deep facial veins, and angular veins. The maxillary vein is the short venous trunk that accompanies the maxillary artery as it lies behind the mandible. This vein serves to connect the pterygoid venous plexus with the superficial temporal vein, thus forming the retromandibular vein. Chapter 12 Deep Face 203 Infraorbital artery Deep temporal arteries Lateral pterygoid Accessory meningeal artery Middle meningeal artery Sphenopalatine artery Posterior superior alveolar artery External acoustic meatus Anterior tympanic artery Deep auricular artery Superficial temporal artery Maxillary artery Inferior alveolar artery External carotid artery Buccal artery Descending palatine artery Pterygopalatine fossa Inferior orbital fissure A Lateral View Masseteric branch Pterygoid branch Maxillary artery Maxillary artery Inferior alveolar artery Mandibular foramen Dental branches Mental branch B Lateral View Figure 12-9. Clinical Considerations Anesthesia Improper administration of anesthesia for a maxillary molar tooth may cause the needle to puncture the pterygoid venous plexus, resulting in a hematoma with noticeable swelling. The needle tract may permit the spread of a possibly fatal infection to the cavernous sinus. Note the pterygoid venous plexus and its communications with the deep face, superficial face, and the cavernous sinus. Most of the sensory innervation and all of the motor innervation to the structures of the deep face are supplied by branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve exits the cranium via the foramen ovale. Motor and sensory roots pass individually through the foramen before uniting into a trunk within the infratemporal fossa. The anterior division is mostly motor with some sensory branches, whereas the posterior division is mainly sensory with some motor branches. Two branches arise from the trunk: the meningeal branch and the medial pterygoid nerve. The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) has three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular. Most of the structures of the deep face are supplied by branches of the mandibular division, with only a small contribution from the maxillary division. The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve is the only division that contains both sensory and motor components. The two unite outside the foramen ovale to form the trunk of the mandibular nerve. The medial pterygoid nerve arises from the medial aspect of the trunk, passing through the adjacent otic ganglion on its way to the medial pterygoid muscle. Two small branches arise from the medial pterygoid nerve close to its origin and are named: the nerve to the tensor tympani and the nerve to the tensor veli palatini. The former passes to the auditory tube and on to the same-named muscle in the middle ear cavity. The latter nerve Chapter 12 Deep Face 205 enters the tensor veli palatini muscle near its origin. Arising from this division are the auriculotemporal, lingual, and inferior alveolar nerves. The anterior division of the mandibular nerve (mostly motor) innervates all of the muscles of mastication except the medial pterygoid muscle. The anterior division of the mandibular nerve provides motor innervation to all the remaining muscles of mastication (with the possible exception of the sphenomandibularis muscle).

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Normally arthritis pain causes order 200mg celebrex with mastercard, the hemoglobin in arteries of healthy children and adults is 97% to arthritis in back ssdi purchase 100mg celebrex with amex 99% saturated (but is frequently read as 1 00% by pulse oximeters) arthritis in dogs swelling generic 200 mg celebrex amex. The pulse oximeter is generally quite accurate arthritis medication and hair loss 100mg celebrex with mastercard, but some factors, such as patient movement artifacts, cold tissue beds, poor perfusion of tissue beds, and crying, may cause "false alarms" that incorrectly indicate low oxygen levels. It produces a cataleptic state with profound analgesia and varying amnesia depending on dose. Because ketamine acts primarily on the thalamus and cortex, not on the reticular activating system, the patient does not appear to be asleep but rather dissociated from the environment. Stimulatory cardiovascular changes usually are produced, so tachycardia and increased blood pressure can be expected. Ketamine is mentioned primarily to point out that it is classified as a general anesthetic because the patient under its influence is incapable of making appropriate responses to verbal commands Of stimulation. It may cause respiratory depression and arrest in some patients as well as delirium and hallucinations. Ketamine should be used only by prac titioners qualified to administer general anesthesia. By listening through the stethoscope, the clinician can determine the respiratory rate and quality of air movement during breathing as well as the heart sounds. Par tially occluded airways or restrictive airways have different sound qualities, including wheezing, stridor, and crowing. The precordial stethoscope is especially sensitive to compet ing operatory sounds. The mix of monitors required for any sedation will depend on the final depth of sedation. The most common monitors for minimal and moderate sedation are pulse oximeters, precordial stethoscopes, and automated blood pressure cuffs (see Figure outlined. These will be briefly dentist to administer sedation or anesthesia safely is currently under debate and is Kaduse. In virtually all states, special permits are required to practice parenteral sedative techniques. Many states have instituted permits for adult andlor pediatric oral sedation as well. Deep sedation and general anesthesia are grouped together for training requirements, medicolegal reasons) and purposes of malpractice insurance. The clinician should remember that a sedation technique from which a patient is not easily aroused and may not respond purposef ully to verbal 2. All states have adopted requirements for the administration of deep seda tion and general anesthesia by dentists. Wilson S: Review of monitors and monitoring during sedation with emphasis on clinical applications, Pediatr Dent 1 7(7):413-418, 1 995. In summary, a pharmacologic approach to managing the behavior of uncooperative children in the dental office with sedation is very complex and requires additional training beyond the scope of this textbook. An undersedated child may continue to pose a management problem, whereas oversedation of a child may quickly become a life-threatening emergency in the dental office. Consensus development conference statement on anesthesia and sedation in the dental office. Infections involving the teeth and oral cavity can become quite severe and even life threatening if not properly managed. The management of infections usually involves a definitive dental or surgical procedure and often requires the use of antibiotics. Antibiotics are substances produced by microorganisms or by synthetic chemical methods that can be used to treat bacterial infec tions. Antibiotics are indicated for diseases in which a spe cific bacterial pathogen has been identified, for clinical situations likely caused by a bacterial agent, and for use as a lifesaving measure in a severely ill patient. Prophylactic use of antibiotics is indicated in some specific instances, such as prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis for patients with congenital heart disease. Antibiotic therapy is maximally successful if the causative pathogen is identified by culture or serologic testing and the therapeutic agent most active against that pathogen (confirmed by susceptibility testing) is administered in appropriate doses. There are multiple classification schemes for these agents, including differentiation by micro bial target, mode of action, and effect on the bacterial pathogen. The principal emphasis of this chapter is on antibacterial agents-the antibiotics. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are effective primarily against either gram-positive or gram-negative organisms.

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To produce the proper faciolingual position of both anterior and posterior teeth arthritis in neck causing pins and needles effective 200 mg celebrex, either a rectangular archwire must be twisted (torqued) cure arthritis with diet celebrex 100 mg with mastercard, or the bracket slot must be cut at an angle to arthritis in overweight dogs order 100mg celebrex with amex produce the same torque effect arthritis pain in dogs remedies celebrex 100mg on line. Contemporary Straight-Wire Brackets and Tubes Self-Ligating Brackets Placing wire ligatures around tie wings on brackets to hold archwires in the bracket slot is a time-consuming procedure. The elastomeric modules introduced in the 1970s largely replaced wire ligatures for two reasons: they are quicker and easier to place, and they can be used in chains to close small spaces within the arch or prevent spaces from opening. It also is possible to use a cap or clip, attached over the bracket or built into the bracket itself, to hold wires in position. Three types of self-ligating mechanisms built into the bracket are available at present (with more probably on the way): a springy latching cap, springy retaining clips in the bracket walls, and rigid latching caps (Figure 10-35). A variety of claims have been made as advantages of self-ligating brackets, but as we have pointed out in Chapter 9, it is clear now that almost all of these are incorrect when clinical outcomes are reviewed. Reduction of friction, the most advertised claim, is true in laboratory testing but does not lead to less resistance to sliding a bracket along a wire or a wire through a bracket. A recent summary of claims versus evidence concluded that self-ligating brackets save a little time in ligation but do not produce a saving of treatment time or better results. As a group, the self-ligating brackets perform quite nicely, with no evidence that their latching mechanism makes any significant difference. It is important, however, that a self-ligating bracket is made so that when stabilization rather than tooth movement is needed or the latching mechanism has difficulty in holding a rectangular torquing wire in place, an archwire can be tied tightly in place with an external steel ligature. Individually Customized Brackets Because of the marked individual variations in the contour of the teeth, no appliance prescription can be optimal for all patients, and compensatory bends in finishing archwires often are necessary. Custom brackets for the facial surface of teeth offer the prospect of eliminating almost all archwire bending. Whether custom brackets are to be made for the facial or lingual surfaces, the technology is much the same. The first step is a 3-D scan with at least 50 micron resolution, now of dental casts on a laboratory bench but perhaps directly in the mouth in the future. The result for custom brackets on the facial is "the ultimate straight-wire appliance, " with wire bending reduced to a minimum. Preliminary data indicate that treatment time is reduced in comparison to treatment with conventional prescription brackets, but that some adjustment of the final archwires still is required. Individualized custom brackets must be attached to the teeth with precision equal to that used in making them, so an indirect bonding system with an accurate placement template is required. What happens when one of the custom brackets is lost and requires replacement and rebonding, or is loose and requires rebonding? Because the specifications for each bracket can be maintained in computer memory, it is possible to obtain a replacement bracket and bonding template within 2 to 3 weeks. A and B, Demonstration of an open bracket with a rigid slot (A, Damon-Q) and the clip closed in a ceramic bracket of the same design (B, Damon Clear). Esthetic nonmetal brackets are available now in most self-ligating bracket designs. C, Side view of the Damon-Q bracket showing the accessory horizontal slot and the rigid clip. A, this data set is used to place virtual brackets on each tooth and develop a template of the change needed to obtain ideal occlusion. B, the digital data are used to mill a custom prescription slot for each bracket that incorporates the in-out, tip and torque needed to position each tooth. C, Then bonding jigs are fabricated so that each bracket can be placed in the planned location. Attempts are being made now to integrate images of tooth­lip relationships into the data base for fabrication of the custom brackets. Lingual Appliances A major objection to fixed orthodontic appliances always has been their visible placement on the facial surface of the teeth. This is one reason for using removable appliances and is the major reason for the current popularity of clear aligners in treatment of adults. The introduction of bonding in the 1970s made it possible to place fixed attachments on the lingual surface of teeth to provide an invisible fixed appliance, and brackets designed for the lingual surface were first offered soon after bonding was introduced, but there were multiple problems in producing a bracket that intruded only minimally into tongue space and was at least reasonably easy to use.

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Other general visceral sensory fibers supply the carotid sinus with blood pressure receptors as well as to arthritis quotes effective celebrex 200 mg chemoreceptors located within the carotid body arthritis pain management in dogs generic celebrex 100mg overnight delivery. The glossopharyngeal nerve leaves the brain as three or four rootlets adjacent to arthritis neck facet disease discount 100mg celebrex amex the vagus nerve along the medulla between the olive and the inferior cerebellar peduncle arthritis research back pain purchase celebrex 200mg fast delivery. The rootlets unite to exit the skull through the jugular foramen in company with the vagus and accessory nerves. Housed in the groove within the jugular foramen are the superior and inferior ganglia of the glossopharyngeal nerve, containing the cell bodies of the sensory fibers. While passing through the jugular foramen, this nerve communicates with the facial nerve, the auricular branch and superior ganglion of the vagus nerve, and the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion. Tympanic Nerve the tympanic nerve arises from the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve. Here it forms the tympanic plexus with fibers from the carotid plexus and the greater petrosal nerve. Branches from the tympanic plexus serve sensory functions to the mucous membranes of the eardrum, oval and round windows, mastoid air cells, and auditory tube. The tympanic nerve emerges from the tympanic plexus as the lesser petrosal nerve, providing preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion (see Tables 18-1 and 18-2), which it reaches by leaving the skull at the fissure between the petrous portion of the temporal bone and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. The otic ganglion, described in the section on the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, lies just outside the foramen ovale, immediately behind the mandibular nerve. This ganglion receives preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the lesser petrosal Chapter 18 Cranial Nerves 305 Clinical Considerations Unilateral Lesion of the Glossopharyngeal Nerve Outside Brainstem Unilateral lesion of the glossopharyngeal nerve outside of the brainstem will cause loss of taste from the posterior one third of the tongue, loss of salivation from the parotid gland on the ipsilateral side, loss of gag reflex, and loss of carotid sinus reflex. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers leave the otic ganglion and are communicated to the auriculotemporal nerve for distribution to the parotid gland, providing it with secretomotor innervation. Pharyngeal Plexus Other fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve join with pharyngeal branches of the vagus nerve and branches from the superior cervical ganglion to form the pharyngeal plexus, located on the wall of the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle (Fig 18-10). Branches from this plexus penetrate the wall of the pharynx and supply all of the muscles of the pharynx (except the stylopharyngeus) and soft palate (except the tensor veli palatini) with motor innervation and adjacent mucous membranes with sensory innervation. Although the following information was presented in Chapter 16, it is appropriate to present it again because there is confusion related to the function of the individual nerves making up the pharyngeal plexus. Glossopharyngeal contributions to the pharyngeal plexus are sensory, whereas the vagal branches are motor. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers contributed from the superior cervical ganglion to the pharyngeal plexus are vasomotor in function. Carotid Sinus Nerve the nerve to the carotid sinus arises as a small filament from the glossopharyngeal nerve subsequent to nerve communications at the jugular foramen. This branch descends along the internal carotid artery, ending in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. On its way to the carotid sinus, the nerve communicates with pharyngeal branch(es) of the vagus and branches from the superior cervical ganglion (postganglionic sympathetic fibers). Glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves transmit afferent fibers from the chemoreceptors within the carotid body. Nerve to the Stylopharyngeus Muscle As the glossopharyngeal nerve courses to the posterior pharyngeal wall, a nerve to the stylopharyngeus muscle arises to supply that muscle. Pharyngeal Branches the main trunk of the glossopharyngeal nerve terminates as several pharyngeal branches to enter the posterior pharyngeal wall. Some of these branches continue to the tongue as lingual branches, providing general sensation to the posterior one third of the tongue and special sensory fibers to the taste buds on that portion of the tongue as well as to those of the circumvallate papillae. Other branches penetrate the pharyngeal wall as tonsillar branches, communicating with the lesser palatine nerve of the maxillary X. In addition to its destinations within the head and neck, the vagus nerve also enters the thorax to serve the heart and lungs, and continues 306 Chapter 18 Cranial Nerves into the abdomen to supply most of the abdominal viscera. The vagus nerve possesses five modalities, namely, special visceral efferent general somatic afferent, general visceral afferent, special visceral afferent, general visceral efferent. The vagus is the nerve of General somatic afferent fibers are provided to the skin about the ear and external acoustic meatus. General visceral afferent supplies the mucous mem- the fourth pharyngeal arch, and its recurrent laryngeal branch is the nerve of the sixth pharyngeal arch.

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