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The tissue inflammation (severe inflammation is an undesirable adverse response) increases the number of antibodyproducing cells in the affected tissues rogaine causes erectile dysfunction cheap silvitra 120mg mastercard. Some adjuvants enhance the "trapping" of lymphocytes in the spleen erectile dysfunction causes smoking cheap 120mg silvitra with amex, ie erectile dysfunction treatment san francisco 120mg silvitra mastercard, lymphocytes are rendered incapable of escaping from the spleen impotence yoga pose order silvitra 120mg fast delivery, causing an accumulation of lymphocytes and stimulation of the immune response. Antibiotics, especially some tetracycline preparations, inhibit the immune system to varying degrees. An indirect effect is a transient increase in the serum corticosterone level, which depresses macrophage activity. Direct effects include interference with protein synthesis, phagocytosis and antigen processing. Because of their potential side effects, antibiotics should be used only when absolutely necessary, particularly when treating secondary bacterial infections associated with viral diseases. Antibiotics should not be used prophylactically, but only when specifically indicated. For a substance to be immunogenic, it must be a structurally stable macromolecule and foreign to a host, and it must possess surface structures (epitopes) against which the immune response will be focused. The specific site on an antigen that reacts with antibodies is called an epitope and only comprises a few molecules (10 to 12 amino acids in proteins). Several epitopes may exist in each antigen molecule (approximately one epitope per 5,000 daltons). With such a defined antigenic site, the main portion of foreign macromolecule is nonantigenic, and the immune response of the host is dependent on recognizing defined epitopes as not "self. The type of reaction is mainly controlled by immune response genes, which code for regulatory proteins located on the surface of cells of the immune system. Epitopes may also stimulate a varying response depending on the manner in which the antigen is presented to the lymphocytes. Individual epitopes may induce antibody production, cell-mediated reactions, tolerance or immunosuppression. The immune response that follows natural infection is thus a mixture of responses (ie, polyclonal). Since epitopes are specifically defined and occupy rather small areas on an antigen, an antibody produced against one antigenic site may react with an epitope on another totally unrelated antigen. This cross-reaction between totally different antigens can create diagnostic problems in some serologic tests. It has been experimentally suggested that approximately ten million epitopes exist that can stimulate an immune response. In addition to macromolecules, small molecules (called haptens) that are linked to a carrier may also provoke an immune response. Haptens of particular interest to the clinician are small, metabolized molecules of drugs, which may bind to serum (or other) proteins. These molecules are recognized as foreign and often induce hypersensitivity responses. Classical examples of hapten-induced reactions in mammals are reactions to penicillins and cephalosporins. Hypersensitivity responses appear to be less common in birds but have been linked to some antimicrobial sulfonamides. Responses to hapten-carrier molecules indicate that production of antibodies to epitopes of the haptens is possibly independent of the carrier molecule itself. Nevertheless, cell-mediated response may be initiated against the hapten-carrier as such, and is therefore called "carrier-specific. Specific defenses have a prophylactic quality in defending the host against ubiquitous microorganisms and recurrent infections. The specific defense mechanism relies mainly on antigen-sensitive cells, B- and T-lymphocytes, to recognize each antigenic epitope (antigenic determinant) and to produce organism-specific antibodies (humoral immune system), or to provoke cell-mediated reactions (cellular immune system). Humoral System Immunoglobulins the primary function of the humoral immune system is the production of antibodies directed mainly against extracellular phases of antigens. Antibodies are immunoglobulins, with the major part of the molecule containing ligands for membrane receptors, complement activation and isotype-specific (antigenically unique) structures. Immunoglobins can be differentiated into isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA and, in mammals, also IgD and IgE). Although the other avian isotypes are not the same as those in mammals, they do share the same functions and are termed similarly. Although chicken complement is fixed by immune complexes, it is not affected by complement from the guinea pig.

Decomposers are organisms that (1) attack and kill plants as well as animals (2) illaborate chemical substances erectile dysfunction remedies purchase 120 mg silvitra, causing death of tissues (3) operate in relay terms erectile dysfunction 43 buy cheap silvitra 120 mg online, simplifying step by step the organic constituents of dead body (4) operate in living body and simplifying organic substances of cells step by step Ans: (3) [1994] Q92 erectile dysfunction drugs injection 120 mg silvitra overnight delivery. Claviceps purpurea is causal organism of (1) Ergot of Rye (2) Smut of Barley (3) Powdery Mildew of Pea erectile dysfunction treatment urologist cheap silvitra 120 mg on line. Ustilago caused plant diseases called smut because (1) they develop sooty masses of spores (2) they parasitise cereals (3) affected parts becomes completely black. Protista includes (1) chemoautotrophs (2) heterotrophs (3) all the above (4) chemoheterotrophs Ans: (3) (1) chemosynthesisers (2) photosynthesisers, symbionts and holotrophs (3) holotrophs (4) photosynthesisers Ans: (2) [1994] Q96. Macro and micronucleus are the characteristic feature of (1) Hydra and Ballantidium (2) Paramecium and Vorticella (3) Vorticella and Nictothirus (4) Opelina and Nictothisus jo Q95. The function of contractile vacuole, in protozoa, is (1) osmoregulation (2) locomotion (3) reproduction (4) food digestion Ans: (1) (1) Mycoplasma (2) Bacteria (3) Paramecium (4) Euglena Ans: (4) Q99. Which of the following organism possesses characteristics of both a plant and an animal? White rust disease is caused by (1) Phytophthora (2) Claviceps (3) Albugo candida (4) Alternaria Ans: (3) [1995] Q102. The chemical compounds produced by the host plants to protect themselves against fungal infection is (1) phytoalexins (2) phytotoxin (3) hormone (4) pathogen Ans: (1) Q103. The organism, used for alcoholic fermentation, is (1) Aspergillus (2) Pseudomonas (3) Saccharomyces (4) Penicillium Ans: (3) in [1995] (1) plasma membrane (2) lobopodia (3) contractile vacuole (4) uroid portion Ans: (3) jo Q105. Interferons are (1) anticancer proteins (2) antiviral proteins (3) complex proteins (4) antibacterial proteins Ans: (2) [1996] Q107. Mycorrhiza is jo (1) a fungus parasitising root system of higher plants (2) a symbiotic association of plant roots and certain fungi (3) an association of Rhizobium with the roots of lenguminous plants (4) an association of algae with fungi Ans: (2) in [1997] Q115. Transfer of genetic information from one bacterium to another in the transduction process is through (1) Another bacterium (2) Conjugation (3) Physical contact between donor and recipient strain (4) Bacteriophages released from the donor bacterial strain Ans: (4) [1997] Q117. The main role of bacteria in the carbon cycle involves (1) digestion or breakdown of organic compounds (2) photosynthesis (3) assimilation of nitrogenous compounds (4) chemosynthesis Ans: (1) [1998] Q119. Two bacteria found to be very useful in genetic engineering experiments are (1) Rhizobium and Diplococcus (2) Escherichia and Agrobacterium (3) Nitrosomonas and Klebsiella (4) Nitrobacter and Azotobacter Ans: (2) jo in [1998] Q120. Most of the Lichens consist of (1) red algae and ascomycetes (2) blue-green algae and basidomycetes (3) brown algae and phycomycetes (4) blue-green algae and ascomycetes Ans: (4) [1998] Q121. Photosynthetic bacteria have pigments in (1) chromoplasts (2) leucoplasts (3) chromatophores (4) chloroplasts Ans: (3) (1) Sesbania (2) Anabaena (3) Bacillus polymexa (4) Bacillus popilliae Ans: (2) Q123. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in the industrial production of (1) ethanol (2) citric acid (3) butanol (4) tetracycline Ans: (1) [1998] Q124. Which one of the following micro-organisms is used for production of citric acid in industries? Puccinia forms (1) uredia and aecia on barberry leaves (2) uredia and aecia on wheat leaves (3) uredia and pycnia on barberry leaves (4) uredia and telia on wheat leaves Ans: (4) [1999] Q126. In fungi stored food material is (1) sucrose (2) glycogen (3) glucose (4) starch Ans: (2) [1999] Q127. A virus can be considered a living organism because it (1) reproduces (inside the host) (2) responds to touch stimulus (3) can cause disease (4) respires Ans: (1) ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m. Enzymes are absent in (1) Algae (2) Cyanobacteria (3) Fungi (4) Viruses Ans: (4) in Q129. A good green manure in rice fields is (1) Salvinia (2) Aspergillus (3) Mucor (4) Azolla Ans: (4) jo [2000] [2000] Q130. Extra-nuclear inheritance occurs in (1) Phenylketonuria (2) Killer strain in Paramecium (3) Tay sach disease (4) Colour blindness Ans: (2) [2000] Q133. Interferons are synthesized in response to (1) Viruses (2) Mycoplasma (3) Fungi (4) Bacteria Ans: (1) Q134. Industrial production of ethanol from starch is brought about by (1) Azotobacter (2) Saccharomyces (3) Penicillium (4) Lactobacillus Ans: (2) jo in [2001] Q135. Black rust of wheat is caused by (1) Aspergillus (2) Puccinia (3) Rhizopus (4) Mucor Ans: (2) [2001] Q136. Adhesive pad of fungi penetrates the host with the help of (1) softening by enzymes (2) mechanical pressure and enzymes (3) only by mechanical pressure (4) hooks and suckers Ans: (2) ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m. Plant decomposers are (1) Protista and animalia (2) Monera and fungi (3) Animalia and monera (4) Fungi and plants Ans: (2) [2001] Q138.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia

The passive reabsorption of ionized forms is pH dependent because the tubular cells are less permeable to vacuum pump for erectile dysfunction in pakistan purchase 120 mg silvitra otc these moieties erectile dysfunction recovery discount silvitra 120mg with visa. Therefore b12 injections erectile dysfunction buy generic silvitra 120mg on-line, in the treatment of drug poisoning impotence definition inability silvitra 120 mg discount, the excretion of some drugs can be increased by alkalinization or acidification of the urine. Under normal physiological conditions, excretion of drugs in the sweat, saliva, and by the lacrimal glands is quantitatively insignificant. Elimination by these routes is dependent on pH and diffusion of the unionized lipid soluble form of the drug through the epithelial cells of the glands. The concentration of drug in the systemic circulation is related to the concentration of drug at the site of action. Pharmacokinetics attempts to quantify the relationship between dose and drug disposition and provide the framework, through modeling, to interprete measured concentrations in biological fluids. It is often changes in these parameters, through disease, genetic abnormalities, or drug interactions, which necessitate modifications of dosage regimens for therapeutic agents. The most important parameters are clearance, the ability of the body to eliminate drug, volume of distribution, a measure of the apparent volume of the body available to occupy the drug, bioavailability, the proportion of drug absorbed into the systemic circulation, and half-life, a measure of the rate of drug elimination from the blood. The units of clearance are volume per unit time and, therefore, this parameter measures the volume of biological fluid, such as blood, that would have to have drug removed to account for drug elimination. The concept of clearance is useful in pharmacokinetics because clearance is usually constant over a wide range of concentrations, providing that elimination processes are not saturated. Saturation of biotransformation and excretory processes may occur in overdose and toxicokinetic effects should be considered. If a constant fraction of drug is eliminated per unit time, the elimination follows first order kinetics. However, if a constant amount of drug is eliminated per unit time, the elimination is described by zero order kinetics. Some drugs, for example, ethanol, exhibit zero order kinetics at "normal" or non-intoxicating concentrations. However, for any drug that exhibits first order kinetics at therapeutic or non-toxic concentrations, once the mechanisms for elimination become saturated, the kinetics become zero order and clearance becomes variable. This approach enables evaluation of the effects of a variety of physiological factors such as changes in blood flow, plasma protein binding, and enzyme activity. The extraction ratio is derived from the concentration of drug in the blood entering the organ and the concentration of drug in the blood leaving the organ. The extent of distribution can be described by relating the amount of drug in the body to the concentration. This volume does not indicate a defined physiological dimension but the volume of fluid required to contain all the drug in the body at the same concentration as in the plasma or blood. Therefore, it is often called the apparent volume of distribution (V) and is determined at steady state when distribution equilibrium has been reached between drug in plasma and tissues. V= Amount in body/ Plasma drug concentration the volume of distribution depends on the pKa of the drug, the degree of plasma protein and tissue binding, and the lipophilicity of the drug. As would be expected, drugs that distribute widely throughout the body have large volumes of distribution. In the equation above, the body is considered one homogeneous unit and therefore exhibits a one compartment model. In this model, drug administration occurs in the central compartment, and distribution is instantaneous throughout the body. For most drugs, the simple one compartment model does not describe the time course of drug in the body adequately and drug distribution and elimination is more completely described in multiple exponential terms using multicompartmental models. This parameter is dependent on the rate and extent of absorption at the site of drug adminsitration. Obviously, it follows that drugs administered intravenously do not undergo absorption, but immediately gain access to the systemic circulation and are considered 100% bioavailable. Half-life is usually determined from the log-terminal phase of the elimination curve.

Robinow syndrome

Cloud to impotence 40 years discount silvitra 120mg without a prescription earth lightning: Here the lightning occurs due to impotence 2 proven silvitra 120 mg flow of negative charge from cloud to erectile dysfunction 38 cfr buy silvitra 120mg otc positive charge of earth impotence drugs purchase 120mg silvitra with mastercard. Usually the atmosphere surrounding the earth act as insulator for lightning but when the Effects of Lightning Spencer had described four patterns of lightning effects as:48 1. The sledge-hammer blow ­ due to compression of air occurring constantly throughout the path, ahead of the high-speed return stroke. Usually the exposure of lightning stroke is extremely short, less than one ten-thousandth of a second. This causes extensive mechanical injuries like lacerations and contusions with tearing of clothes and shoes. There may be injuries of disruptive kind in one body and there may be no external mark in another. In most cases, it is usual to find areas of burning and the burns may be restricted to areas of collar stud or other metal objects. The skin may show clusters of punctate burns caused by electrical arcing or may show singeing of hairs. Rupture of ear drums may occur due to explosive effects or by electricity induced muscular contractions. The heat produced by the flash may be sufficient to fuse or magnetize the metal or metallic objects or metallic objects worn or carried by victim such as metal button, or tooth fillings, hair pins, pendent, key, key-chain etc. Spencer (1932) 29 grouped the external marks of lightning into three classes as 1. Autopsy Findings Circumstances · · History of recent lightning or occurrence of storm is important. At the scene of a lightning strike, there may be damage to nearby trees such as splitting or removal of bark. The ground may display a fern pattern in the grass resembling the cutaneous discolouration seen on some victims. Clothes · · · the clothes may show singeing of fibers or melting or may catch fire and burn. Arborescent Marks · · · these are also called as filigree burns or feathering or Lichtenberg figures or fern-leaf pattern. This fern-like pattern of erythema in the skin is commonly found over shoulder or chest. Examination · It is said that rigor mortis appears soon after death and pass off quickly. A clinical evaluation of the use of the thermography in determining degree of burn injury. The identification of the electrical burn in cases of electrocution by the acro-reaction test. Death from electrocution during auto-erotic practice: case report and review of the literature. However, in forensic practice, the term asphyxia is used to describe a condition in which the supply of oxygen to the blood and body tissues is reduced appreciably below the normal working level by any interference with respiration. The purpose of breathing is to convey oxygen from atmosphere into the lungs and removes carbon dioxide from the lungs to the atmosphere. When the process is arrested, there will be interference with the passage of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Thus asphyxia is considered as a sate in which these two elements are combined and includes:1 1. Hypercapnea where there is an increase in carbon dioxide retention in the blood and tissues. Definition: Adelson defined asphyxia, as "a state in living organism in which there is acute lack of oxygen available for cell metabolism associated with inability of body to eliminate excess of carbon dioxide. These terms are defined as follows: · Anoxia: It is a state characterized by lack of oxygen supply to body and tissues. Anoxic Anoxia this results from either: · Prevention of oxygen entering to lungs or · Inability of lungs to oxygenate the blood. Due to breathing in a vitiated atmosphere deficient in oxygen like bottom of unused well or interior of a granary. Due to interference with respiration by any mechanical obstruction in air passage.

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